Pakistan Climate Change Portal

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SubNational Info


Demographic Profile

Punjab is Pakistan’s second largest province by area after Balochistan, and with a population of 110,012,442 in 2017, is its most populous province. The capital city of Punjab is Lahore. The province is divided into 9 divisions, with a total of 36 districts. These are further divided into 145 Tehsils. The population of Punjab increased 5 times in the last 60 years, and may reach an estimated 188 million by 2050. A majority of the population of Punjab is under 30 years of age, corresponding with the rest of country.

Of Punjab’s 110 million inhabitants, 40 million are classified ‘urban’ while 70 million are classified ‘rural’. The average population density is recorded at 536 persons per sq. km, making Punjab one of South Asia’s most urbanized regions where approximately 40% of the populace resides in urban areas.

Agriculture is the basis of economic growth and development in Punjab, as the sector (including livestock) contributes a quarter of Punjab’s GDP, while employing a large portion of its workforce, and contributing a large share to national export earnings and food security. This has been due to the world’s largest integrated gravity flow irrigation system being in Punjab, along with climate conditions that are conducive to agricultural production. However, according to the Punjab Growth Strategy (2018), the last twenty years have seen a declining share of agriculture in provincial growth from 31% to 20%, while the manufacturing sector contribution increased from 20 to 24%. Overall, the services sector has taken the lead by contributing almost 56% to provincial output.

Source: PARC

Punjab’s landscape is characterized by fertile alluvial plains, owing to the Indus river and its four major tributaries – Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, which traverse the province from north to south. The province also includes mountainous regions, including the Sulaiman Mountains, Margalla Hills and the Salt Range. Deserts can be found in southern Punjab near the border with Rajasthan and near the Sulaiman range, as well as parts of the Thal and Cholistan region. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council divides the province into four agro ecological zones, Irrigated Plains, Barani Region, Thal Region and Marginal Land.

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